Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption in order to preserve resources for the future and reduce environmental pollution. Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources.
Energy conservation can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, personal security, and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users can increase energy use efficiency to maximize profit.
Energy conservation policiesEditElectrical energy conservation is an important element of energy policy. Energy conservation reduces the energy consumption and energy demand per capita and thus offsets some of the growth in energy supply needed to keep up with population growth. This reduces the rise in energy costs, and can reduce the need for new power plants, and energy imports. The reduced energy demand can provide more flexibility in choosing the most preferred methods of energy production.
By reducing emissions, energy conservation is an important part of lessening climate change. Energy conservation facilitates the replacement of non-renewable resources with renewable energy. Energy conservation is often the most economical solution to energy shortages, and is a more environmentally being alternative to increased energy production.
Energy conservation by country Edit
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Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) is an Indian government body created in 1976 and engaged in promoting energy efficiency and conservation in every walk of life. In the recent past PCRA has done two mega national wide mass media campaigns in television, radion & print media which have been well received by the massess and end users of petroleum products. An impact assessment survey by a third party revealed that due to these mega campaigns by PCRA,over all awareness level have gone up leading to saving of fossil fuels worth crores of rupees besides saving dear "EARTH" from pollution. Due to these mega campaigns, many awards won by PCRA is just testimony of sincere effords by tireless PCRA for the sake of nation. For further details you may like to see website www.pcra.org
Bureau of Energy Efficiency is an Indian governmental organization created in 2002 responsible for promoting energy efficiency and conservation.
JapanEditSince the 1973 oil crisis, energy conservation has been an issue in Japan. All oil based fuel is imported, so indigenous sustainable energy is being developed.
In Lebanon and since 2002 The Lebanese Center for Energy Conservation (LCEC) has been promoting the development of efficient and rational uses of energy and the use of renewable energy at the consumer level. It was created as a project financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Ministry of Energy Water (MEW) under the management of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and gradually established itself as an independent technical national center although it continues to be supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as indicated in the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between MEW and UNDP on June 18, 2007.
European Union Edit
As part of the EU's SAVE Programme , aimed at promoting energy efficiency and encouraging energy-saving behaviour, the Boiler Efficiency Directive specifies minimum levels of efficiency for boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels.
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- Main article: Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom
Energy conservation in the United Kingdom has been receiving increased attention over recent years. Key factors behind this are the Government's commitment to reducing carbon emissions, the projected 'energy gap' in UK electricity generation, and the increasing reliance on imports to meet national energy needs. Domestic housing and road transport are currently the two biggest problem areas.
The and Wales and 21,660,000 of these being occupied if each home used an energy monitor and saved an average of 20% of electricity there is a potential saving of 1.9 million tones of carbon.
- Main article: Energy conservation in the United States
The United States is currently the largest single consumer of energy. The U.S. Department of Energy categorizes national energy use in four broad sectors: transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial.
Energy usage in transportation and residential sectors, about half of U.S. energy consumption, is largely controlled by individual domestic consumers. Commercial and industrial energy expenditures are determined by businesses entities and other facility managers. National energy policy has a significant effect on energy usage across all four sectors, and its strengthening is part of the 2010 Presidential-Congressional legislative debate.
Issues with energy conservationEdit
Advocates and critics of various forms and policies of energy conservation debate some issues, such as:
- Standard economic theory suggests that technological improvements increase energy efficiency, rather than reduce energy use. This is called the Jevons Paradox and it is said to occur in two ways. Firstly, increased energy efficiency makes the use of energy relatively cheaper, thus encouraging increased use. Secondly, increased energy efficiency leads to increased economic growth, which pulls up energy use in the whole economy. This does not imply that increased fuel efficiency is worthless, increased fuel efficiency enables greater production and a higher quality of life. However, in order to reduce energy consumption, efficiency gains must be paired with a government intervention that reduces demand (a green tax, cap and trade).
- Some retailers argue that bright lighting stimulates purchasing. However, health studies have demonstrated that headache, stress, blood pressure, fatigue and worker error all generally increase with the common over-illumination present in many workplace and retail settings . It has been shown that natural daylighting increases productivity levels of workers, while reducing energy consumption.
- The use of telecommuting by major corporations is a significant opportunity to conserve energy, as many Americans now work in service jobs that enable them to work from home instead of commuting to work each day.
- Electric motors consume more than 60% of all electrical energy generated and are responsible for the loss of 10 to 20% of all electricity converted into mechanical energy.
- Consumers are often poorly informed of the savings of energy efficient products. The research one must put into conserving energy often is too time consuming and costly when there are cheaper products and technology available using today's fossil fuels.
- Technology needs to be able to change behavioural patterns, it can do this by allowing energy users, business and residential, to see graphically the impact their energy use can have in their workplace or homes. Advance real-time energy metering is able to help "people" save energy by their actions. Rather than become wasteful automatic energy saving technologies, real-time energy monitors and meters such as the Energy Detective, Enigin Plc's Eniscope, Ecowizard, or solutions like EDSA'a Paladin Live are examples of such solutions 
- Gary Steffy, Architectural Lighting Design, John Wiley and Sons (2001) ISBN 0-471-38638-3
- Lumina Technologies, Analysis of energy consumption in a San Francisco Bay Area research office complex, for (confidential) owner, Santa Rosa, Ca. May 17, 1996
- GSA paves way for IT-based buildings 
- The official homepage for the European Intelligent Metering project. 
- ↑ http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/index_en.htm
- ↑ For an Energy-Efficient Millennium: SAVE 2000, Directorate-General for Energy
- ↑ Council Directive 92/42/EEC of 21 May 1992 on efficiency requirements for new hot-water boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels
- ↑ US Dept. of Energy, "Annual Energy Report" (July 2006), Energy Flow diagram
- ↑ Wackernagel, Mathis and William Rees, 1997, "Perpetual and structural barriers to investing in natural capital: economics from an ecological footprint perspective." Ecological Economics, Vol.20 No.3 p3-24.
- ↑ Carl Marziali (2008). "Does Sustainability Clash with the American Dream?" Excerpted from USC Trojan Family Magazine feature "Watt Now?" in Winter 2008 issue.
- ↑ Scott Davis, Dana K. Mirick, Richard G. Stevens (2001). "Night Shift Work, Light at Night, and Risk of Breast Cancer". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93 (20): 1557–1562. doi:10.1093/jnci/93.20.1557. PMID 11604479. http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/full/jnci;93/20/1557?ijkey=e1472aefe9398c2c26bf8515391f5940acc05495.
- ↑ Bain, A (1997). "The Hindenburg Disaster: A Compelling Theory of Probable Cause and Effect". Procs. NatL Hydr. Assn. 8th Ann. Hydrogen Meeting, Alexandria, Va., March 11–13,: 125–128.
- ↑ Lumina Technologies Inc., Santa Rosa, Ca., Survey of 156 California commercial buildings energy use, August, 1996
- ↑ Best Buy Optimas Award Winner for 2007
- ↑ European Commission of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, "Electricity Consumption and Efficiency Trends in the Enlarged European Union ", 2006
- ↑ The Difficulties of Energy Efficiency. "The Elusive Negawatt ", 2008
- ↑ July 2009 European Commission's Directorate-General for Energy and Transport initiative, "Energy Savings from Intelligent Metering and Behavioural Change (INTELLIGENT METERING) http://www.managenergy.net/products/R1951.htm", 2009
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