The term outhouse originally referred to an outbuilding, or any small structure away from a main building, used for a variety of purposes, but mainly for activities not wanted in the main house. Outhouses are used for storage, animals, and cooking, to name a few uses. Larger structures have names such as barn, stable, woodshed, detached garage and storage shed.
In North American English, an outhouse (sometimes also called a backhouse or a privy) is now a small enclosure around a pit that is used as a toilet. Most outhouses have one or two holes. One well-built example had four large holes and one small hole, for a child.
Dunny or thunderbox Edit
In Australia this toilet is frequently referred to as a dunny or "thunderbox". Waste deposited in earth closets was also euphemistically referred to as "nightsoil". In suburban areas not connected to the sewerage, such outhouses were not built over pits. Instead, waste was collected into large cans, or "dunny-cans", which were positioned under the toilet, to be collected by contractors (or "nightsoil collectors") hired by the local council. Collected waste matter would then be removed from the premises and disposed of elsewhere. The contractors would replace the used cans with empty, cleaned cans. Until the 1970s Brisbane relied heavily on this form of sanitation. See also, the discussion of Australia's Kosciuszko National Park, infra.
Long drop Edit
In New Zealand such toilets are referred to as 'long-drops'. These are the usual toilet-variety found on tramping tracks and other locations where water is unavailable for flushing. Less commonly bachs may have these instead of flush toilets.
The term biffy is sometimes encountered in the context of U.S. Girl Scouting, and may have originated with the "BFI" logo of what was at one time Browning-Ferris Industries (now part of Allied Waste Industries), a waste collection company whose trade lines in some markets include the servicing of portable toilets. The term "Biffy" can also perhaps be traced to a company operating in Minnesota named "Biff's," which services portable toilets. Campers are told the term is an acronym for "Bathroom in the Forest For You." An alternate explanation: when backpackers prepare a cathole or trench latrine in their overnight campsite (even embellishing it with fresh-cut flowers), they call it the BIFF - Bathroom In Forest Floor. A backpacking group will carry a zip-lock bag with a trowel, toilet paper, and a lighter (to burn the used tissue); this bag is known as "the BIFF key".
The term "biffy" appears to have originally been a localism in Minnesota and adjoining places. Students studying linguistics in the mid-20th century were given the sample sentence, "If I said 'meet me at the biffy' what would you think?" Hysterical laughter would convulse the class as the professor queried students from other regions and logged their responses.
The term "kybo" is popular within the Scout Movement worldwide. The term "kybo" may have originated at the Farm and Wilderness Camps in Vermont where it came from the coffee cans (Kybo brand coffee) that held the lye or more often lime used to keep odor to a minimum. It was only after Kybo coffee (Motto: a cup full of satisfaction) was no longer available and the cans were no longer used that folks began to come up with other possible reasons for the term "kybo". The word is believed by some to have originated as an acronym for "Keep Your Bowels Open" although this may be a backronym. An interesting aside is that toilet paper is often referred to as "Kybo Tape" or "Kybo Wrap". The term appears in summer camp folklore as a parody of "Downtown":
- When you are sleepy and it's time to go peepee there's a place to go... kybo
- When you are droopy and it's time to go poopy there's a place to go... kybo
- Just listen to the rhythm of the froggies in the toilet,
- Even though it's smelly I am sure you will enjoy it
- The lights are not on in there, but you forget all your worries,
- Forget all your cares in the kybo
- Is not it fun to go... kybo
Kybos are firmly woven into the lore of RAGBRAI, the Register's Annual Great Bicycle Ride Across Iowa. "Kybo Roulette", in which riders waiting in line guess which toilet door will open next, is a common and celebrated diversion on the ride. See external link below to view "Adopt-A-Kybo" humor piece.
Biological processes Edit
An outhouse is primarily a hole dug into the ground, into which biological waste solids and liquids are introduced, similar to a cesspit. If sufficient moisture is available, natural bacteria within the waste materials begin the fermentation. Earthworms, amoebas, molds, and other organisms in the surrounding ground soils and flying insects entering the privy hole also consume nutrients in the waste material, slowly decomposing the wastes and forming a compost pile in the base of the pit. Bacteria form a complex biofilm on the wastes and in the surrounding exposed soils around the perimeter of the pit and feed on the wastes splashed or dropped into the pit.
An outhouse operates differently from a septic tank in that the pit is not normally filled with standing water. The solids act as a sponge to retain moisture but also are exposed to open air, allowing for insects and earthworms to feed on the wastes which would not be possible within a septic tank. Septic tanks also tend to contain only organisms that can survive anaerobic conditions, while the open outhouse pit can sustain both aerobic and anaerobic organisms.
The process of decomposition is slow due to the layering of waste materials but is generally effective if the input of new wastes does not exceed the decomposition rate of the bacteria and other organisms. Small amounts of moisture from urination are absorbed by existing decomposed wastes in the base of the pit. In soils where the percolation rate of water through the soil is slow and where there is not a large amount of waste entering the pit, the wastes can slowly decompose and be rendered harmless without causing groundwater contamination.
Soil percolation and groundwater pollution Edit
In soils with a fast rate of percolation such as sandy soils, or where the base of the pit penetrates topsoils and clay going directly down to underyling gravel and fractured substone, waste liquids entering the unlined pit may quickly seep deep underground before bacteria and other organisms can remove contaminants, leading to groundwater pollution. This fast percolation of liquid wastes out of the pit can be slowed or prevented in newly dug outhouses by lining the base of the pit and the walls with a layer of absorptive organic material such as a thick mat of grass clippings. This material then decomposes and becomes part of the compost pile lining the pit that continues to act as a moisture sponge.
In most outhouse designs, the privy hole is covered by a small building. The primary purpose of the building is for human comfort, so that the user does not get wet when it is raining or cold when it is windy. However the building has the secondary and (possibly unintended by the builder) effect of protecting the privy hole from large influxes of water when it is raining, which would flood the hole and flush untreated wastes into the underlying soils before they can decompose.
On flat or low-lying ground, the privy hole can be further protected from rain and floodwaters by constructing a small raised hill or berm around the edge of the hole, using material from the hole when the pit is first excavated, to raise up the outhouse foundation. This helps falling rain and surface water to flow away from the sides of the outhouse so it does not enter the pit and lead to groundwater contamination.
Rain and surface water flowing into a low-lying open pit will also lead to soil erosion around the edges of the pit that may eventually undermine the building foundation, and potentially lead to collapse of the structure into the enlarging hole.
End of pit life Edit
Eventually over a period of many years, the solid wastes form a growing pile that fill the pit. A new pit is dug somewhere nearby, and soil is used from the new pit to cover and cap off the old pit. Underground organisms such as earthworms continue decomposition of the old pit until the material is indistinguishable from other ground soils.
High volume usage Edit
In locations where an outhouse must service a large number of users, the single pit may be extended to form a long covered trench or as a series of separate pits, so that the waste inputs are spread out over a larger surface area. The fastest waste decomposition generally occurs in the uppermost layer of solids exposed to the air. Decomposition continues slowly in deeper layers but relies on diffusion of air into the solids to sustain life for the organisms within the solids.
A deeper pit may appear to provide additional capacity but a thick layer of fresh solids deposited by many users may exceed the natural decomposition rate of the organisms in the pit, leading to increased potential for waste seepage out of the pit. A deep pit may also penetrate upper slow-percolation surface soil layers, and allow entry of contaminated waste liquids into the underlying fast percolation subsoils.
Decomposition may be accelerated by stirring or turning the pile, which breaks up the pile and introduces air pockets and air channels into the pile to allow faster organism growth within the bed of solids.
Holding tanks Edit
In areas where an open pit cannot be safely constructed due to extremely high soil percolation rates and lack of absorptive organic material to absorb and decompose liquid wastes, the open pit is replaced with solid-walled storage tank that typically must be pumped out regularly since liquids are not permitted to leach out of the storage tank.
Hazardous waste Edit
As with standard septic and sewage systems, toxic substances such as paint, oil, and chemicals must not be dumped into outhouse pits. The toxic materials will either kill the organisms breaking down the compost pile or the chemicals may not be digestible, eventually seeping deeper underground and contaminating groundwater under the pit.
The decomposition of the solids by organisms naturally leads to the emission of gases such as methane and hydrogen sulfide. These gases linger within the pit and are the source of the pit odor, but the open-pit nature permits diffusion of these gases out of the pit, so concentrations are typically low enough not to cause harm.
The odor can be reduced by installing a vertical vent tube in the corner of the outhouse structure. In the warmth of the day the vent tube is heated, which sets up a slow air convection current that draws fresh air into the privy hole, and expels warmed pit gases out the top of the vent tube.
Insect control Edit
Some types of flying insects such as the housefly are attracted to the odor of decaying material, and will use it for food for their offspring, laying eggs in the decaying material. Other insects such as mosquitoes seek out standing water that may be present in the pit for the breeding of their offspring.
Both of these are undesirable pests to humans, but can be easily controlled without chemicals by enclosing the top of the pit with tight fitting boards or concrete, using a privy hole cover that is closed after every use, and by using fine-grid insect screen to cover the inlet and outlet vent holes. This prevents flying insect entry by all potential routes.
One of the purposes of outhouses is to avoid spreading parasites such as worms, notably hookworms. These worms are able to travel up to 4 feet from the waste through soil, so outhouses are commonly made at least 6 feet deep.
Controversies, trends and records Edit
Outhouse design, placement and maintenance has long been recognized as being important to the public health. See posters created by the Works Project Administration.
The growing popularity of paddling, hiking and climbing has created special waste disposal issues throughout the world. It is a dominant topic for outdoor organizations and their members. A grass roots organization -- Hikers Against Doo-Doo, also known as HADD—exists dedicated to providing information, insight and strategies for addressing the problem of waste disposal. The response to the growing problem has varied around the world.
- On August 29, 2007, the highest outhouse in the continental United States — which sat atop Mount Whitney at about 4,418 meters (14,494 feet) above sea level, offering a magnificent panorama to the user — was removed. Two other outhouses, in the Inyo National Forest, were closed due to the expense and danger involved in transporting out large sewage drums via helicopter. The annual 19,000 or so hikers of the Mount Whitney Trail, who must pick up National Forest Service permits, are now given Wagbags (a double-sealed sanitation kit) and told how to use them. "Pack it in; pack it out" is the new watchword. Solar powered toilets did not sufficiently compact the excrement, and the systems were judged failures at that location. Additionally, by relieving park rangers of latrine duty, they were better able to concentrate on primary ranger duties, e.g., talking to hikers. The use of Wagbags and the removal of outhouses is part of a larger trend in U.S. parks.
- In 2007, Europe's highest outhouses (two) were helicoptered to the top of France's Mont Blanc at a height of 4,260 meters (13,976 feet). The dunny-cans are emptied by helicopter. The facilities will service 30,000 skiers and hikers annually; thus helping to alleviate the deposit of urine and feces that spread down the mountain face with the spring thaw, and turned it into 'Mont Noir'. More technically, the 2002 book Le versant noir du mont Blanc (The black hillside of Mont Blanc) exposes problems in conserving the site.
- However, atop the 5,642 meters (18,510-feet) Mount Elbrus -- Russia's highest peak, the highest mountain in all of Europe and (at least) topographically dividing Europe from Asia -- sits the world's "nastiest outhouse" at 4,206 meters (13,800 feet). It is in the Caucasus Mountains, near the frontier between Georgia and Russia and a 'stone's throw' from troubled Chechnya. As one writer opined, ". . . it does not much feel like Europe when you're there. It feels more like Central Asia or the Middle East" (Per Outside Magazine 1993 search and article). The outhouse is surrounded by and covered in ice, perched off the end of a rock, and with a pipe pouring effluvia onto the mountain. It consistently receives low marks for sanitation and convenience, but is considered to be a unique experience.
- Australia's highest "dunny" -- located at Rawson's Pass in the Main Range in Kosciuszko National Park, which each year receives more than 100,000 walkers outside of winter and has a serious human waste management issue, was completed in 2008.
- A stone outhouse in Colca Canyon Peru has been claimed to be "the world's highest."
- Many reports document the use of Dunny cans (complete with pictures) for the removal of excrement, which must be packed in and packed out on Mount Everest. Also known as "expedition barrels" or "bog barrels," the cans are weighed to make sure that groups do not dump them along the way. "Toilet tents" are erected. This would seem to be an improvement over the prior practices, including the so-called "McKinley system"; there has been an increasing awareness that the mountain needs to be kept clean, for the health of the climbers at least.
Design and construction Edit
Outhouses vary in design and construction. Common features usually include:
- A separate structure from the main dwelling, close enough to allow easy access, but far enough to minimize smell.
- Being a suitable distance away from any freshwater well, so as to minimize risk of contamination and disease.
- An important feature which distinguishes an outhouse from other forms of toilets is the lack of connection to plumbing, sewer, or septic system.
- Walls and a roof for privacy and to shield the user from the elements—rain, wind, sleet and snow (depending on locale) and thus to a small degree, cold weather. Floor plans typically are rectangular or square, but hexagonal outhouses have been built. Thomas Jefferson designed and built two brick octagons at his vacation home.
- Outhouse door design: There is no standard for door design. The well-known crescent moon on American outhouses was popularized by cartoonists and had a questionable basis in fact. There are authors who claim the practice began during the colonial period as an early “mens”/ “ladies” designation for an illiterate populace. (The sun and moon being popular symbols for the genders during those times. Others refute the claim as an urban legend. What is certain is that the purpose of the hole is for venting and light and there were a wide variety of shapes and placements employed.
- In Western societies, there is at least one seat with a hole in it, above a small pit.
- In Eastern societies, there is a hole in the floor, over which the user crouches.
- A roll of toilet paper is sometimes available. However, historically, old newspapers and catalogs from retailers specializing in mail order purchases, such as the Montgomery Ward or Sears Roebuck catalog, were also common before toilet paper was widely available. Paper was often kept in a can or other container to protect it from mice, etc. The catalogs served a dual purpose, also giving one something to read. Old corn cobs, leaves, or other types of paper were also used.
- Outhouses are typically built on one level, but two stories do occasionally occur in unusual circumstances. One double-decker was built to service a two-story building in Cedar Lake, Michigan. The outhouse was connected by walkways. It still stands (but not the building). The waste from "upstairs" is directed down a chute separate from the "downstairs" facility in these instances, so contrary to various jokes about two story outhouses, the user of the lower level has nothing to fear if the upper level is in use at the same time.
- U.S. President Calvin Coolidge had a window in his outhouse, but such accoutrements are rare.
- Outhouses are commonly humble and utilitarian, made of lumber or plywood. This is especially fit so they can easily be moved when the earthen pit fills up. Depending on the size of the pit and the amount of use, this can be fairly frequent, sometimes yearly. As pundit 'Jackpine' Bob Cary wrote: "“Anyone can build an outhouse, but not everyone can build a good outhouse.”
- However, brick outhouses are known.Examples here Some have been surprisingly ornate, almost opulent considering the time and the place. For example, an opulent 19th century antebellum example (a three-holer) is at the plantation area at the State Park in Stone Mountain, Georgia. The outhouses of Colonial Williamsburg varied widely, from simple expendable temporary wood structures to high style brick. See Jefferson's matched pair of eight-sided brick privies. Such outhouses are sometimes considered to be overbuilt, impractical and ostentatious, giving rise to the simile "built like a brick shit house." That phrase's meaning and application is subject to some debate; but (depending upon the country) it has been applied to men, women, or inanimate objects.
- Construction and maintenance of outhouses is subject to provincial, state, and local governmental restriction, regulation and prohibition. It is potentially both a public health issue, which has been addressed both by law and by education of the public as to good methods and practices (e.g., separation from drinking water sources). This also becomes a more prevalent issue as urban and suburban development encroaches on rural areas, and is an external manifestation of a deeper cultural conflict. See also urban sprawl, urban planning, regional planning, suburbanization, urbanisation and counter urbanisation.
- Outhouses are inherently part of larger battlegrounds concerning the environment, environmental policy, environmental quality and environmental law.
- A modern analogy to the outhouse is the "Clivus multrum", which is an electric and waterless compost-making machine. See composting toilet and humanure. They are an alternative to outhouses and septic fields, and provide effective sanitation in areas too remote for sewer lines. Worm hold privies, another variant of the composting toilet are being touted by Vermont's Green Mountain Club. These simple outhouses are stocked with red worms (a staple used by home composters). Despite their environmental benefits, composting toilets are likewise subject to regulations.
- Street urinals, also known as vespasiennes or Pissoirs are common in some European cities. Since the 1990s, these were offtimes replaced by the far superior Sanisette. This is a new urban analog to the outhouse—at least insofar as it is a free standing building that houses a unisex outdoor toilet (albeit with modern amenities and a toll being collected). See also pay toilets.
- While one might think 'there is nothing new under the moon,' in 2005 a patent was issued for a 'portable outdoor toilet with advertising indicia.'
Popular culture Edit
- The double-decker outhouse has been used as an unflattering metaphor for the "Trickle-down theory" of politics, economics, command, management, labor relations, responsibility, etc. Depending on who is depicted on top and below, it is an easy and familiar cartoon.
- On November 10, 2003, a drawing of an outhouse was used by B.C. (comic strip) cartoonist Johnny Hart as a motif in a controversial and allegedly religiously-themed piece.
- In Michigan, the Upper Peninsula's Trenary has the largest outhouse race but Mackinaw City is home to an annual and largest "outhouse race south of the Mackinac Bridge". Another famous outhouse race is during the Yale Bologna Festival.
- Charles Chic Sale was a famous comedian in vaudeville and the movies. In 1929 he published a small book, The Specialist ISBN 0-285-63226-4 which was just earthy enough to be a hugely popular "underground" success, and just tactfully worded enough to not risk being banned. Its entire premise centered on sales of outhouses, touting the advantages of one kind or another, and labeling them in "technical" terms such as "one-holers", "two-holers", etc. SeeThe Specialist by Charles (Chic) Sale (as told in 1929). Over a million copies were sold. In 1931 his monolog "I'm a Specialist" was made into a hit record (Victor 22859) by popular recording artist Frank Crumit (music by Nels Bitterman). As memorialized in the "Outhouse Wall of Fame", the term "Chic Sale" became a rural slang synonym for privies, an appropriation of Mr. Sale's name that he personally considered unfortunate. Id.
- Folksinger Billy Edd Wheeler wrote and performed a song titled "The Little Brown Shack Out Back", a surprisingly sentimental look at the outhouse (lyrics are worth the read, and the song is worth the listen). The song is often played on the Dr. Demento radio show.
- The U.S. National Park Service once built an outhouse that cost above $333,000.
- As a college student, Richard Nixon achieved renown by providing a three-hole outhouse to be tossed onto the traditional campus bonfire.
- Tsi-Ku also known as Tsi Ku Niang is described as the Chinese Goddess of the outhouse and divination. It is said that a woman could uncover the future by going to the outhouse to ask Tsi-Ku.
- Old outhouse pits are seen as excellent places for archeological and anthropological excavations, offering up a trove of common objects from the past—a veritable inadvertent time capsule—which yields historical insight into the lives of the bygone occupants. It is especially common to find old bottles, which seemingly were secretly stashed or trashed, so their content could be privately imbibed.
See also Edit
Literature and further reading Edit
- Barlow, Ronald S. The Vanishing American Outhouse. Windmill Publishing 1992. ISBN 0-933846-02-9.
- Cary, 'Jackpine' Bob The All-American Outhouse—Stories, Design & Construction. Adventure Publications, Inc. 2003. ISBN 978-1-59193-011-2.
- Gregory, Morna E.; James, Sian (2006) Merrell Publishers Ltd Toilets of the World (Paperback) ISBN 1-85894-337-X; ISBN 978-1-85894-337-4.
- Harrison, Peter Joel Garden Houses and Privies, Authentic Details for Design and Restoration. John Wiley & Sons, 2002. ISBN 0-471-20332-7 Member of the Outhouse Wall of Fame
- Sale, Charles "Chic"; Kermode, William Kermode (Illustrator): The Specialist. Souvenir Press, 1994. ISBN 0-285-63226-4 | ISBN 978-0-285-63226-4
- ↑ Plans for a five-holer at Sewer History.
- ↑ "Australian Country Roadsigns". http://www.upfromaustralia.com/auscounroad.html.
- ↑ "Observations « Carry the Bags". http://carrythebags.wordpress.com/category/observations/.
- ↑ "The Kybo Song". http://guidezone.e-guiding.com/kybosong.htm.
- ↑ 
- ↑ "Library of Congress, American Memory Historical Collections for the National Digital Library, Reproduction Number LC-USZC2-1592 DLC.". http://www.sewerhistory.org/grfx/privbath/outhse2.htm.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Flushed with success: new waste-reducing design in modern toiletry". E: The Environmental Magazine. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1594/is_n2_v9/ai_20492815.
- ↑ "ET 11/94: Potpourri". http://www.sdearthtimes.com/et1194/et1194s10.html.
- ↑ Barringer, Felicity (September 5, 2007). "No More Privies, So Hikers Add a Carry-Along - New York Times". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/05/us/05whitney.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- ↑ "FresnoBee.com: Outdoors: A new approach to Whitney's waste". http://www.fresnobee.com/sports/outdoors/story/136356.html.
- ↑ Barringer, Felicity (September 5, 2007). "No More Privies, So Hikers Add a Carry-Along - New York Times". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/05/us/05whitney.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- ↑ Ananova - Europe's highest toilet
- ↑ Le versant noir du Mont-Blanc.
- ↑ "The pinnacle of success - and disgust - for climbers". http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/04/09/TRGU3I3MIM1.DTL.
- ↑ See Getting to the Top In the Caucasus - New York Times
- ↑ "Kosciuszko National Park Plan of Management: 2006-2007 Implementation Report". http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/08596_0607.pdf.
- ↑ "ideotrope". https://ideotrope.org/index.pl?node_id=69224&photo_id=69140&displaytype=slideshow.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 "MountainZone.com". http://classic.mountainzone.com/everest/98/climb4-28cleanup.html.
- ↑ "Mt. Everest 2005: The British Everest expedition reports 7 Summits from the North!". http://www.everestnews.com/everestupdatesnorth2005/britisheverest2005u05332005.htm.
- ↑ "BBC". http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/everest/2007/04/.
- ↑ "Paul & Fi's Mount Everest Climb". http://www.adlers.com.au/aboutclimbing.php.
- ↑ "Adventure Peaks Mt Everest 2004 Expedition:". http://www.everestnews2004.com/everestnews2/adventurepeaks2004up8.htm.
- ↑ "An Outhouse in SoHo Yields Artifacts of 19th century Life - New York Times". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0CE7D91E39F93AA1575BC0A960958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print.
- ↑ "Sewer History: Photos and Graphics". http://www.sewerhistory.org/grfx/privbath/outhse1.htm.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 "Colonial Williamsburg Journal". http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/Autumn02/necessary.cfm.
- ↑ "The Straight Dope: Why do outhouse doors have half-moons on them?". http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_382.html.
- ↑ "outhouses". http://missourifolkloresociety.truman.edu/outhouses.html.
- ↑ "PortalWisconsin.org". http://www.portalwisconsin.org/resources_chat_archives2.cfm?chatid=4257.
- ↑ "Cedar Lake, MI - Two-Story Outhouse". http://www.roadsideamerica.com/tips/getAttraction.php?tip_AttractionNo==657.
- ↑ "Coolidge outhouse with window, picture". http://www.sewerhistory.org/images/pr/pro/pro10.jpg.
- ↑ Cary, Bob, "The All-American Outhouse -- Stories, Design & Construction" ISBN 978-1-59193-011-2.
- ↑ "Sewer History: Photos and Graphics". http://www.sewerhistory.org/grfx/privbath/outhse2.htm.
- ↑ "Georgia's Stone Mountain Brick Outhouse". http://www.jldr.com/ohstonmt.html.
- ↑ "Outhouses & Privy Vaults: Early Milwaukee Sanitation History". http://www.slahs.org/history/government/sanitary/outhouse_privy.htm.
- ↑ "Among the Outhouses, the Prospect of Plumbing; Change, Not Sought by All, May Be in the Pipeline for a Rustic Westchester Niche - New York Times". The New York Times. December 1, 1997. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9803E3DD1F3AF932A35751C1A961958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- ↑ 'See Kentucky Amish-Mennonite schools accused of violating health regulations
- ↑ 'See Composting toilets bring the outhouse indoors — JSCMS
- ↑ "Portable outdoor toilet with advertising indicia - US Patent 6920650". http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6920650-description.html.
- ↑ 'See American Chronicle A Well Deserved Death for Trickle-Down
- ↑ See also U of L magazine - Dr. Phil is Leaving the Building
- ↑ "The Two Story Outhouse!". http://www.jldr.com/ohorania.htm.
- ↑ ""Slam" comic, BC by Johnny Hart.". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.C._%28comic_strip%29.
- ↑ Ripley's Believe It or Not, Hardcover - Sep 2004) ISBN 0-439-46553-2
- ↑ "The Annual Outhouse Races in Northern Michigan". http://www.jldr.com/ohraces.html.
- ↑ Google Image, Mackinaw Outhouse race.
- ↑ "The Specialist". http://www.jldr.com/specialist.htm.
- ↑ "Outhouse Wall of Fame, The Specialist.". http://www.outhousemuseum.com/wall_chic.html.
- ↑ "That Little Old Shack Out Back". http://www.jldr.com/shackpoem.html.
- ↑ "The Opulent Outhouse". http://www.theplumber.com/outhouse.html.
- ↑ People's Almanac, Wallechinsky & Wallace.
- ↑ "The Gods and Goddesses of China". http://www.scns.com/earthen/other/seanachaidh/godchina.html.
- ↑ See[[ref name="nytimes1"/>]]
- ↑ Compare, What are Outhouse Diggers?
- ↑ "Outhouse Museum Wall of Fame: Peter Harrison". http://www.outhousemuseum.com/wall_harrison.html.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Outhouse that may be added|
- Discussion of outhouses as vernacular architecture, from the Missouri Folklore Society
- Images of outhouses around the world, with specific locations
- Example of a twelve-family outhouse from St. Louis, MO, 1910
- Sewer History: Photos and Graphics Historical graphics, photos, and plans for outhouses]
- Colonial Williamsburg Journal Necessary and Sufficient (article about outhouses in colonial America)
- Outhouses of America Tour
- Outhouse Wall of Fame
- Sewer history
- Outhouses as parade floats An annual contest in West Virginia.
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