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Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Although there are many polyesters, the term "polyester" as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naturally-occurring chemicals, such as in the cutin of plant cuticles, as well as synthetics through step-growth polymerization such as polycarbonate and polybutyrate. Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not.
Fabrics woven from polyester thread or yarn are used extensively in apparel and home furnishings, from shirts and pants to jackets and hats, bed sheets, blankets and upholstered furniture. Industrial polyester fibers, yarns and ropes are used in tyre reinforcements, fabrics for conveyor belts, safety belts, coated fabrics and plastic reinforcements with high-energy absorption. Polyester fiber is used as cushioning and insulating material in pillows, comforters and upholstery padding.
While synthetic clothing in general is perceived by some as having a less-natural feel compared to fabrics woven from natural fibres (such as cotton and wool), polyester fabrics can provide specific advantages over natural fabrics, such as improved wrinkle resistance. As a result, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. Synthetic fibres also can create materials with superior water, wind and environmental resistance compared to plant-derived fibres.
Polyesters are also used to make "plastic" bottles, films, tarpaulin, canoes, liquid crystal displays, holograms, filters, dielectric film for capacitors, film insulation for wire and insulating tapes.
Liquid crystalline polyesters are among the first industrially-used liquid crystalline polymers. They are used for their mechanical properties and heat-resistance. These traits are also important in their application as an abradable seal in jet engines.
Polyesters are widely used as a finish on high-quality wood products such as guitars, pianos and vehicle / yacht interiors. Burns Guitars, Rolls Royce and Sunseeker are a few companies that use polyesters to finish their products. Thixotropic properties of spray-applicable polyesters make them ideal for use on open-grain timbers, as they can quickly fill wood grain, with a high-build film thickness per coat. Cured polyesters can be sanded and polished to a high-gloss, durable finish.
Polyesters as thermoplastics may change shape after the application of heat. While combustible at high temperatures, polyesters tend to shrink away from flames and self-extinguish upon ignition. Polyester fibres have high tenacity and E-modulus as well as low water absorption and minimal shrinkage in comparison with other industrial fibres.
Thermosetting polyesters are used as casting materials, and chemo setting polyester resins are used as fiberglass laminating resins and non-metallic auto-body fillers. Fibreglass-reinforced unsaturated polyesters find wide application in bodies of yachts and as body parts of cars.
According to the composition of their main chain, polyesters can be:
|Composition of the main chain||Number of repeating units||Examples of polyesters||Examples of manucturing methods|
|Aliphatic||Homopolymer||Polyglycolide or Polyglycolic acid (PGA)||Polycondensation of glycolic acid|
|Polylactic acid (PLA)|
|Polycaprolactone (PCL)||Ring-opening polymerization of caprolactone|
|Copolymer||Polyethylene adipate (PEA)|
|Semi-aromatic||Copolymer||Polyethylene terephtalate (PET)||Polycondensation of terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol|
|Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)||Polycondensation of terephthalic acid with 2,3-butanediol|
|Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT)||Polycondensation of terephthalic acid with 1,3-propanediol|
|Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN)||Polycondensation of ethylene glycol with one or more naphthalene dicarboxylic acids|
Polyester is a synthetic polymer made of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) or its dimethyl ester dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and monoethylene glycol (MEG). With 18% market share of all plastic materials produced, it ranges third after polyethylene (33.5%) and polypropylene (19.5%).
The main raw materials are described as follows:
- Purified Terephthalic Acid – PTA – CAS-No.: 100-21-0
- Synonym: 1,4 Benzenedicarboxylic acid,
- Sum formula; C6H4(COOH)2 , mol weight: 166,13
- Dimethylterephthalate – DMT- CAS-No: 120-61-6
- Synonym: 1,4 Benzenedicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester
- Sum formula C6H4(COOCH3)2 , mol weight: 194,19
- Mono Ethylene Glycol – MEG – CAS No.: 107-21-1
- Synonym: 1,2 Ethanediol
- Sum formula: C2H6O2 , mol weight: 62,07
Antimony trioxide – ATO – CAS-No.: 1309-64-4 Synonym: non, mol weight: 291,51 Sum formula: Sb2O3
In 2008 about 10 000 t Sb2O3 were used to produce around 49 Mio t polyethylene terephthalate.
Polyester is described as follows:
Polyethylene Terephthalate CAS-No.: 25038-59-9 Synonym / abbreviations: polyester, PET, PES Sum Formula: H-[C10H8O4]-n=60-120 OH, mol unit weight: 192,17
There are several reasons for the importance of Polyester:
- The relatively easy accessible raw materials PTA or DMT and MEG
- The very well understood and described simple chemical process of polyester synthesis
- The low toxicity level of all raw materials and side products during polyester production and processing
- The possibility to produce PET in a closed loop at low emissions to the environment
- The outstanding mechanical and chemical properties of polyester
- The recyclability
- The wide variety of intermediate and final products made of polyester.
In table 1 the estimated world polyester production is shown. Main applications are textile polyester, bottle polyester resin, film polyester mainly for packaging and specialty polyesters for engineering plastics. According to this table, the world's total polyester production might exceed 50 million tons per annum before the year 2010.
Table 1: World polyester production
|Market size per year|
|Product Type||2002 [Mio t/a]||2008 [Mio t/a]|
Raw material producerEdit
The raw materials PTA, DMT, and MEG are mainly produced by large chemical companies which are sometimes integrated down to the crude oil refinery where p-Xylene is the base material to produce PTA and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the base material to produce MEG.
Large PTA producers are for instance BP, Reliance, Sinopec, SK-Chemicals, Mitsui, and Eastman Chemicals. MEG production is in the hand of about 10 global players which are headed by MEGlobal a JV of DOW and PIC Kuweit followed by Sabic.
Among the world's largest polyester producers are the following companies:
Artenius, Advansa, DAK, DuPont, Eastman, Hyosung, Huvis, Indorama, Invista, Jiangsu Hengli Chemical Fiber, Jiangsu Sanfangxian Industry, M&G Group, Mitsui, Mitsubishi, NanYa Plastics, Reichhold, Reliance, Rongsheng, Sabic, Teijin, Toray, Trevira, Tuntex, Wellman, Yizheng Sinopec, and Zhejiang Hengi Polymerization.
After the first stage of polymer production in the melt phase, the product stream divides into two different application areas which are mainly textile applications and packaging applications. In figure 2 the main applications of textile and packaging polyester are listed.
Table 2: Textile and packaging polyester application list
|POLYESTER-BASED POLYMER (MELT or PELLET)|
|Staple fiber (PSF)||Bottles for CSD, Water, Beer, Juice, Detergents|
|Filaments POY, DTY, FDY||A-PET Film|
|Technical yarn and tire cord||Thermoforming|
|Non-woven and spunbond||BO-PET Biaxial oriented Film|
Abbreviations: PSF = Polyester Staple Fiber; POY = Partially Oriented Yarn; DTY = Draw Textured Yarn; FDY = Fully Drawn Yarn; CSD = Carbonated Soft Drink; A-PET = Amorphous Polyester Film; BO-PET = Biaxial Oriented Polyester Film;
A comparable small market segment (<< 1 Million t/a) of polyester is used to produce engineering plastics and masterbatch.
In order to produce the polyester melt with a high efficiency, high-output processing steps like staple fiber (50–300 t/d per spinning line) or POY /FDY (up to 600 t/d split into about 10 spinning machines) are meanwhile more and more horizontal, integrated, direct processes. This means the polymer melt is directly converted into the textile fibers or filaments without the common step of pelletizing. We are talking about full horizontal integration when polyester is produced at one site starting from crude oil or distillation products in the chain oil -> benzene -> PX -> PTA -> PET melt -> fiber / filament or bottle-grade resin. Such integrated processes are meanwhile established in more or less interrupted processes at one production site. Eastman Chemicals introduced at first the idea to close the chain from PX to PET resin with their so-called INTEGREX process. The capacity of such horizontal, integrated productions sites is >1000 t/d and can easily reach 2500 t/d.
Besides the above mentioned large processing units to produce staple fiber or yarns, there are ten thousands of small and very small processing plants, so that one can estimate that polyester is processed and recycled in more than 10 000 plants around the globe. This is without counting all the companies involved in the supply industry, beginning with engineering and processing machines and ending with special additives, stabilizers and colors. This is a gigantic industry complex and it is still growing by 4–8% per annum, depending on the world region. Useful information about the polyester industry can be found under  where a “Who is Producing What in the Polyester Industry” is gradually being developed.
Synthesis of polyesters is generally achieved by a polycondensation reaction. See "condensation reactions in polymer chemistry". The General equation for the reaction of a diol with a diacid is : (n+1) R(OH)2 + n R´(COOH)2 ---> HO[ROOCR´COO]nROH + 2n H2O
In this classical method, an alcohol and a carboxylic acid react to form a carboxylic ester. To assemble a polymer, the water formed by the reaction must be continually removed by azeotrope distillation.
- Main article: Transesterification
O \\ C - OCH3 + OH[Oligomer2] / [Oligomer1]
O \\ C - O[Oligomer2] + CH3OH / [Oligomer1]
|(ester-terminated oligomer + alcohol-terminated oligomer)||(larger oligomer + methanol)|
Acylation (HCl method)Edit
- Silyl method
- In this variant of the HCl method, the carboxylic acid chloride is converted with the trimethyl silyl ether of the alcohol component and production of trimethyl silyl chloride is obtained
Acetate method (esterification)Edit
- Silyl acetate method
Thermosetting resins are generally copolymers of unsaturated polyesters with styrene. Polyester saturation is governed through the use of maleic acid or fumaric acid. In vinyl esters, saturation (or lack thereof) is found in the alcohol group of the polyester. The double bond of unsaturated polyester reacts with styrene resulting in a 3-D cross-linked structure. This structure acts as a thermoset. The cross-linking is initiated through an exothermic reaction involving an organic peroxide, such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide or benzoyl peroxide.
A 1993 study found that polyester underwear reduced sperm count and sperm motility in male dogs.
- ↑ Rosato, Dominick V.; Rosato, Donald V.; Rosato, Matthew V. (2004), Plastic product material and process selection handbook, Elsevier, p. 85, ISBN 9781856174312, http://books.google.com/?id=Lqk5QgGoWFkC.
- ↑ PTA
- ↑ DMT
- ↑ MEG
- ↑ Chemical Engineering – Polyester Information Platform
- ↑ http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00296839
- Textiles, by Sara Kadolph and Anna Langford. 8th Edition, 1998.
- Polyester Market Polyester Market
- Chemical Engineering - Polyester Information Platform
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