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Retaining wall

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Stone Retaining wall

A gravity-type stone retaining wall

A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to resist the lateral pressure of soil when there is a desired change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose of the soil. The active pressure increases on the retaining wall proportionally from zero at the upper grade level to a maximum value at the lowest depth of the wall. The total pressure or thrust may be assumed to be acting through the centroid of the triangular distribution pattern, one-third above the base of the wall.[1]

DefinitionEdit

Retaining walls serve to retain the lateral pressure of soil. The basement wall is thus one form of retaining wall.

However, the term is most often used to refer to a cantilever retaining wall, which is a freestanding structure without lateral support at its top. [2]

Terminology

Typically retaining walls are cantilevered from a footing extending up beyond the grade on one side and retaining a higher level grade on the opposite side. The walls must resist the lateral pressures generated by loose soils or, in some cases, water pressures. [3]

The most important consideration in proper design and installation of retaining walls is to recognize and counteract the fact that the retained material is attempting to move forward and downslope due to gravity. This creates lateral earth pressure behind the wall which depends on the angle of internal friction (phi) and the cohesive strength (c) of the retained material, as well as the direction and magnitude of movement the retaining structure undergoes.

Lateral earth pressures are typically smallest at the top of the wall and increase toward the bottom. Earth pressures will push the wall forward or overturn it if not properly addressed. Also, any groundwater behind the wall that is not dissipated by a drainage system causes an additional horizontal hydrostatic pressure on the wall.[4]

It is very important to have proper drainage behind the wall as it is critical to the performance of retaining walls. Drainage materials will reduce or eliminate the hydrostatic pressure and will therefore greatly improve the stability of the material behind the wall, assuming that this is not a retaining wall for water.

As an example, the International Building Code requires retaining walls to be designed to ensure stability against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pressure and water uplift; and that they be designed for a safety factor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning.[5]

TypesEdit

Retaining Wall Type Function

Various types of retaining walls

GravityEdit

Gravity Walls

Construction types of gravity retaining walls

Gravity walls depend on the weight of their mass (stone, concrete or other heavy material) to resist pressures from behind and will often have a slight 'batter' setback, to improve stability by leaning back into the retained soil. For short landscaping walls, they are often made from mortarless stone or segmental concrete units (masonry units)[6]. Dry-stacked gravity walls are somewhat flexible and do not require a rigid footing in frost areas.

Earlier in the 20th century, taller retaining walls were often gravity walls made from large masses of concrete or stone. Today, taller retaining walls are increasingly built as composite gravity walls such as: geosynthetic or with precast facing; gabions (stacked steel wire baskets filled with rocks); crib walls (cells built up log cabin style from precast concrete or timber and filled with soil); or soil-nailed walls (soil reinforced in place with steel and concrete rods).[7]

CantileveredEdit

Counterfort

Conterfort/Buttress on Cantilevered Wall

Cantilevered retaining walls are made from an internal stem of steel-reinforced, cast-in-place concrete or mortared masonry (often in the shape of an inverted T). These walls cantilever loads (like a beam) to a large, structural footing, converting horizontal pressures from behind the wall to vertical pressures on the ground below. Sometimes cantilevered walls are butressed on the front, or include a counterfort on the back, to improve their strength resisting high loads. Buttresses are short wing walls at right angles to the main trend of the wall. These walls require rigid concrete footings below seasonal frost depth. This type of wall uses much less material than a traditional gravity wall.

Sheet pilingEdit

Spundwand

Sheet pile wall

Sheet pile retaining walls are usually used in soft soils and tight spaces. Sheet pile walls are made out of steel, vinyl or wood planks which are driven into the ground. For a quick estimate the material is usually driven 1/3 above ground, 2/3 below ground, but this may be altered depending on the environment. Taller sheet pile walls will need a tie-back anchor, or "dead-man" placed in the soil a distance behind the face of the wall, that is tied to the wall, usually by a cable or a rod. Anchors are placed behind the potential failure plane in the soil.

AnchoredEdit

An anchored retaining wall can be constructed in any of the aforementioned styles but also includes additional strength using cables or other stays anchored in the rock or soil behind it. Usually driven into the material with boring, anchors are then expanded at the end of the cable, either by mechanical means or often by injecting pressurized concrete, which expands to form a bulb in the soil. Technically complex, this method is very useful where high loads are expected, or where the wall itself has to be slender and would otherwise be too weak.

Alternative Retaining TechniquesEdit

Soil nailingEdit

Main article: Soil nailing

Soil nailing is a technique in which soil slopes, excavations or retaining walls are reinforced by the insertion of relatively slender elements - normally steel reinforcing bars. The bars are usually installed into a pre-drilled hole and then grouted into place or drilled and grouted simultaneously. They are usually installed untensioned at a slight downward inclination. A rigid or flexible facing (often sprayed concrete) or isolated soil nail heads may be used at the surface.

Soil-strengthenedEdit

A number of systems exist that do not simply consist of the wall itself, but reduce the earth pressure acting on the wall itself. These are usually used in combination with one of the other wall types, though some may only use it as facing (i.e. for visual purposes).

Gabion meshesEdit

Main article: Gabion

This type of soil strengthening, often also used without an outside wall, consists of wire mesh 'boxes' into which roughly cut stone or other material is filled. The mesh cages reduce some internal movement/forces, and also reduce erosive forces.

Mechanical stabilizationEdit

Main article: Mechanically stabilized earth

Mechanically stabilized earth, also called MSE, is soil constructed with artificial reinforcing via layered horizontal mats (geosynthetics) fixed at their ends. These mats provide added internal shear resistance beyond that of simple gravity wall structures. Other options include steel straps, also layered. This type of soil strengthening usually needs outer facing walls (S.R.W.'s - Segmental Retaining Walls) to affix the layers to and vice versa. [1]

The wall face is often of precast concrete units[6] that can tolerate some differential movement. The reinforced soil's mass, along with the facing, then acts as an improved gravity wall. The reinforced mass must be built large enough to retain the pressures from the soil behind it. Gravity walls usually must be a minimum of 50 to 60 percent as deep or thick as the height of the wall, and may have to be larger if there is a slope or surcharge on the wall.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Ching, F. D., Faia., R., S., & Winkel, P. (2006). Building Codes Illustrated: A Guide to Understanding the 2006 International Building Code (Building Codes Illustrated) (2 ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
  2. Ambrose,J. (1991). Simplified Design of Masonry Structures (pp. 70-75.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  3. Crosbie, M. & Watson, D. (Eds.). (2005). Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  4. Terzaghi, K. (1934), Large Retaining Wall Tests, Engineering News Record Feb. 1, March 8, April 19 
  5. 2006 International Building Code Section 1806.1.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Segmental Retaining Walls". National Concrete Masonry Association. http://www.ncma.org/use/srw.html. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  7. Terzaghi, K. (1943), Theoretical Soil Mechanics, New York: John Wiley and Sons 
  • Ambrose,J.,(1991). Simplified Design of Masonry Structures (pp. 70-75.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  • Bowles, J.,(1968). Foundation Analysis and Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York
  • Building Code (Building Codes Illustrated) (2 ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
  • Ching, F. D., Faia., R., S., & Winkel, P. (2006). Building Codes Illustrated: A Guide to Understanding the 2006 International
  • Crosbie, M. & Watson, D. (Eds.). (2005). Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

External linksEdit

Template:Geotechnical engineeringde:Stützmauer es:Muro de contención fr:Mur de soutènement gl:Muro de contención ko:옹벽 it:Muro di sostegno nl:Keermuur pl:Mur oporowy fi:Tukimuuri zh:護土牆

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