A water filter removes impurities from water by means of a fine physical barrier, a chemical process or a biological process. Filters cleanse water to various extents for irrigation, drinking water, aquariums, and swimming pools.
Methods of filtrationEdit
- Main article: Filtration
Types of filtersEdit
Water treatment plant filtersEdit
- Main article: Water purification
Point-of-use filters for home use include granular activated carbon filters (GAC) used for carbon filtering, metallic alloy filters, microporous ceramic filters, carbon block resin (CBR) and ultrafiltration membranes. Some filters use more than one filtration method. An example of this is a multi-barrier system. Jug filters can be used for small quantities of drinking water. Some kettles have built-in filters, primarily to reduce limescale buildup.
Portable water filtersEdit
- Main article: Portable water purification
Water filters are used by hikers, by aid organizations during humanitarian emergencies, and by the military. These filters are usually small, portable and light (1-2 pounds/0.5-1.0 kg or less), and usually filter water by working a mechanical hand pump, although some use a siphon drip system to force water through while others are built into water bottles. Dirty water is pumped via a screen-filtered flexible silicon tube through a specialized filter, ending up in a container. These filters work to remove bacteria, protozoa and microbial cysts that can cause disease. Filters may have fine meshes that must be replaced or cleaned, and ceramic water filters must have their outside abraded when they have become clogged with impurities.
The term water polishing can refer to any process that removes small (usually microscopic) unwanted material from a portion of water. The process and its meaning vary from setting to setting: a manufacturer of aquarium filters may claim that its filters perform water polishing by capturing "micro particles" within nylon or polyester pads just as a chemical engineer can use the term to refer to the removal of magnetic resins from a solution by passing the solution over a bed of magnetic particulate. In this sense, water polishing is simply another term for water filtration.
- Backwash (physical phenomenon)
- Carbon filtering
- Reverse osmosis
- Reverse osmosis plant
- Sand separator
- Settling basin
- Swimming pool sanitation
- The Encyclopedia of Filters - "Liquid Filtration." An article giving a overview of the various different methods of filtering liquid, as used in industry today.
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